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bangladesh road transportation system

BRTC, the government organisation responsible for public transportation, has 1116 buses and 140 trucks now (2012). Bangladesh Road Transport Authority Online Payment Gateway for Motor Vehicle Taxes & Fees . It has functioned since January 1988. This was an extremely difficult land route across numerous rivers and canals. Rail is as an important method of mass transport in Bangladesh, and many districts are connected by rail. Its customers include the owners of motorised and non-motorised vehicles and ll the a passengers and pedestrians using the network. Seq. Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh, is known as the rickshaw capital of the world! Police controls the traffic. Sixty five percent dwellers of Dhaka city do not avail of any transport, but for them, there is only 220 km of footpath. RHD are currently operating about 161 ferry boats in 81 crossings (13 on national highways, 11 on regional highways and 57 on feeder roads) on it… National Highway (NH) connecting national capital with divisional head quarters, old district headquarters, port cities and international highways; 2. This road was built by Shaista Khan early in aurangzeb's reign. At the time of Partition of Bengal in 1947, East Pakistan inherited only about 480 km of metalled road of good quality. District Road: 33250 km. Bangladesh Road Transport Corporation (BRTC) operates state-owned buses and goods carriers and it manages the Rupantarito Prakritic Gas Company Ltd (RPGCL) to provide compressed natural gas as fuel for automobiles. Bangladesh who rely heavily on public transportation system. Gabtoli and Sadabad are the main bus terminal in Dhaka city. Between the two other major old roads, one was from Bagdwar to Kuch Bihar running from Kamatapur to Ghoraghat through Bhotmari, Dhap, Malang and Pirganj in North Bengal and the other was from Rangamati to Kuch Bihar. With foreign collaboration, the local investors introduced air-conditioned bus services in Dhaka but failed to sustain. Top bus companies are Green Line, Sohag, Challenger, Concord, Dolphin. List of Bank, where customer can pay fees. During the rainy season it becomes a vast waterlogged area where boats of various sizes and shapes appeared to be the only possible modes of transportation in many places even if a few decades ago. In the early days of the Company rule, improvement of roads was undertaken chiefly with the view to facilitating military movement and postal communication. He was also asked to pay special attention to the construction and improvement of roads that would act as feeders to any existing metalled or trunk roads, railway stations, large towns and important bazaars and huts. Bangladesh’s rural road network is essential for improving the health, education, and the livelihoods of about 66 percent of the county’s people. Transport System and Overview of Bangladesh Transport System Saturday, April 22, 2017 6 7. The national airline is growing steadily both network and fleet wise. Roads in deeply flooded areas experience wave erosion and near rivers are affected by river erosion. However, more than two-thirds of the national highways have pavement widths below the prescribed amount. These numbers were increased by about 62% in 1999. Intercity river boat services operate between several cities in Bangladesh where few bridges cross major navigable rivers making road transportation uneconomical. Growth of road network across flood plains of rivers has created drainage problems. If implemented, this system could bring changes in the overall traffic system. A large number of different agencies are involved in planning the development of road transportation, management of the traffic and maintenance of roads and highways. BRTA issued route permits to 86,174 vehicles in the 1990-95 and 115,786 in 1995-2000. “Millions of taka is allegedly traded as bribes to overlook such crimes. Dhaka Transport Coordination Board (DTCB) is entrusted to develop a public transport system in the capital. Transportation business became a thrust sector involving thousands of employees and workers. TransportThe history of transportation in Bengal starts with water transportsince the land is basically riverine and in the absence of a road system, waterways were preferred as the easiest for movements and carrying goods from one place to another. RHD has total length of 20,948 Km road unders its control. It registered 96,623 transports in 1990-55 and 160626 in 1995-2000. RHD also control a total number of 4,659 bridges and 6,122 culverts. Bangladesh has developed a transport network that includes roads, railways, inland waterways, two maritime ports and civil airports catering to both domestic and international traffic. Transport System Saturday, April 22, 2017 7 Transport System: A transportation system or mode is a system for moving persons or goods consisting of three components: (a) The vehicle (equipment) is what moves objects or traffic (people, goods). Very soon road transportation became the most popular mode of transportation. They suggested for proper coordination among all these three types of transportation system—road, rail and waterways. The Local Government Engineering Department (LGED) under the Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development is entrusted with the construction of smaller feeder roads connecting growth centres, villages and thana headquarters. Category Definition 1. Transportation in Bangladesh. In the Map of Hindoostan, Rennell noted six major land routes linking Calcutta with the outlying regions, of which two land routes penetrated deep into the region of today's Bangladesh. New national roads & transport policy describes more 10,000 km of roads to be constructed to join ASIAN highway which will connect Bangladesh with India on the eastern Side & Myanmar on the west part of Bangladesh. Of these 470,000 are plying in urban areas and the rest in the rural areas. The navigable eastern section of the Ganges Riverflows through Bangladesh where it becomes the Padma River, that flows into the Meghna Riverand empties into the Bay of Bengal. Since Bangladesh experiences flood almost every year and about one-third area is inundated under normal floods, roads are generally constructed on raised embankments. The construction of bangabandhu jamuna multipurpose bridge was completed in the second half of the 1990s and the bridge was opened to traffic in 1998. Bangladesh Road Transport Authority (BRTA) was established under section 2A of the Motor Vehicle Ordinance of 1983 and the subsequent 1987 amendment. The second route crossed the southern deltaic Bengal to Dhaka and Sylhet. Bangladesh Railway, a principle transportation agency of the country, is a Government –owned and Government –managed organization. Adil Muhammad Khan, general secretary of the Bangladesh Institute of Planners (BIP) and also a professor in Urban and Regional Planning Department of Jahangirnagar University, termed the DAP proposal as a good initiative. The 1860-61 Annual Report on the Administration of Bengal Presidency noted the existence of feeder roads to serve the eastern bengal railway. BRTA Service Portal (BSP) Bangladesh Road Transport Authority(BRTA) will allow citizen to resister as a service recipient as driver, owner, vehicle dealer to register learner driving license, smart card driving license, driving license renewal, duplicate driving license and all relevant services. In Dhaka city there were 128,085 registered rickshaws and the number of unregistered rickshaws is much higher. By 1880-81, it became apparent that certain new considerations were strongly emerging with regard to road policies of the government. Competition with railways was to be avoided as far as practicable. (Redirected from Rapid transit in Bangladesh) The Dhaka Metro (Bengali: ঢাকা মেট্রো), as distinct from the Dhaka Subway, is an approved metro rail system under construction in Dhaka, the capital and the busiest city of Bangladesh. The region is so flat and low that the mean elevation hardly rises anywhere to more than a few meters above sea level. Ride sharing After Uber was launched in Dhaka, the Bangladesh Road Transport Authority (BRTA) began drafting a set of guidelines for ride sharing in the country. According to Rennell, the actual road distance of Dhaka from Calcutta was 177 miles and has Chittagong 317 miles. Some new bridges on the national highways were built. current transportation system scenario of dhaka Despite having a low level of motorization, Dhaka streets are plagued with traffic congestion, and a deteriorating traffic system. Bangladesh Railway was primarily inherited from the British Assam Bengal Railway system after the partition of India in 1947. The total numbers of transports in Dhaka was 650,000, of which motorised vehicles were 250,000 and the rests were rickshaws. This was probably because both railways and steam navigation were yet to unfold their potentialities in carrying trade in the eastern region. The transportation system in Bangladesh is multimodal, where tourists can experience certain forms of transportation which are not available in the western world, such as 'rickshaws'. The total length of unmetalled roads in East Pakistan at that time was 3,600 km. The Roads and Highways Department is responsible for construction, re-construction and maintenance of national highways, regional and feeder roads. However, metalling and widening of some of the trunk roads continued at a slower pace. According to a study, 70% passengers and 60% freights were carried by road transports during 1996-2001. They provide AC and Non-AC services. The city transportation service however, remained poor. Bangladesh Road Transport Authority (BRTA) issues license for motorised transports and also the route permit to passenger buses. The idea of wheeled traction was formed only after the reconstruction and repair of the grand trunk road. By 2012, the situation has further worsened in all cities and towns with the increase of urban population and vehicles resulting serious traffic jam everywhere. There were only 4,380 motor vehicles in East Pakistan in 1947 and the number rose to 133,253 in 1985, 405,919 in 1999 and 852,416 in 2005. Biman. It is a subsidiary of the Ministry of Communications. Road Transport developed in Bangladesh territory at a slow pace in the past because of the predominance of a water transport system in the vast network of rivers. The consolidation of administration by projecting the arms of law and order into inaccessible parts of the region was fast becoming an imperative for the colonial rulers due to repeated tribal and peasant unrest. It had a fleet of 273 vehicles in 2000 to provide daily transportation service to 84,000 passengers. BRTA is a regulatory body to control, manage and ensure discipline in the road transport sector of Bangladesh, as well as to maintain road safety. During the fifth Five-Year Plan period (1997-2002), a total of Tk 63.20 billion was allocated for communication sector. Rajshahi city is the one of the largest cities in Bangladesh. It had been a losing concern until 2000 and still it is a losing concern. BRTA Service Portal (BSP) Bangladesh Road Transport Authority (BRTA) will allow citizen to resister as a service recipient as driver, owner, vehicle dealer to register learner driving license, smart card driving license, driving license renewal, duplicate driving license and all relevant services. In Bangladesh, among the various modes of transport, road transport system has been playing a significant role in transporting passengers and goods. PWD, District Boards and Union Boards used to construct and maintain roads, culverts and bridges. In December 2000, over 406,000 different types of motorised vehicles were plying on the roads of Bangladesh. AIR TRANSPORT . Welcome To MOTOR VEHICLE TAXES AND FEES PAYMENT SYSTEM FOR BRTA. The residents of the capital Dhaka are expected to get a better-disciplined transport system next year as buses will be brought under a franchise system by … As for example, the report of 1867-68 noted that the greater part of the Imperial expenditure under the head 'communication' had been upon trunk line of roads. It is at 280 km distances from capital city, Dhaka. Two other local ride sharing companies are gaining popularity. These two roads were linked to a system of fortifications comprising more or less a continuous line of embankments in circuit and enclosing much of Kuch Bihar's territory. The Ministry of Communication is the highest regulatory and policy making body of the government in the sector. Physical complexity, particularly a dense network of rivers with numerous large and small tributaries, tidal channels and very low elevation have largely determined the evolution and nature of transportation system in earlier days in the bengal delta. BRTA is both a regulatory body and a service provider. This page was last modified on 19 March 2015, at 11:24. Private taxicab services were introduced in all the cities in recently. But these are being operated in an indisciplined way increasing sufferings of the passengers. The main roads were at that time under the Military Boards, one for each Presidency. It covers a length of 2,855 route kilometers employing a total of 34,168 regular employees. Bangladesh Road Transport Corporation was established in 1961 aiming to establish a better road transport system in the country. Other important bridges constructed in the 1990s included the Dhalla bridge, the 4th Bangladesh-China Friendship bridge, the Langalbanda bridge and the second Buriganga bridge that linked the national highways and contributed to substantial increase in road traffic. The First World War hampered the construction of new all-weather roads and the metalling of others. Motorized Vehicle: 1.5 million 2 & 3 Wheeler Vehicle : 62% Non-motorized Vehicle: 3 Million Road Transportation: 80% Railways Transportation:15% Waterways Transportation: 5% 6 In 2001, there was about 20,854 km of highways, which included 3,144 km of national highways, 1,746 km of regional roads and 15,964 km of Type A feeder roads. “Two separate systems largely work on the roads of Bangladesh. Yet the rural roads across the country badly need regular repair and rehabilitation. Total length of road network constructed by LEGD is about 149,167 km consisting of 14,393 km of Type B feeder road and three types of rural road R1, R2 and R3, respectively of lengths 37,827 km, 49,538 km and 47,409 km. The crest width of embankments and that of road pavement and shoulder are respectively 12.2 m, 7.3 m and 1.83 m for national highways, 10 m, 5.5 m, and 1.83 m for regional highways and 7.3 m, 3.66 m and 1.83 m for Type A and Type B feeder roads. The number rose to 82,688 in the next 5 years. Transport business in the post-liberation era was booming with the construction of more roads and bridges. Upazilla & Union Road: 71611 km. Bangladesh Airlines connects 20 cities in Asia. These were: (a) the Darjeeling Trunk Road linking Calcutta with Darjeeling through Berhampore, Bhagwangola, Godagari, Dinajpur and Shiliguri; (b) the Jessore Road linking Calcutta with Faridpur through Bongaon and Jessore; and (c) the Chittagong Trunk Road connecting Daudkandi, Comilla and Chittagong. The factors responsible for such bad condition of roads included poor quality of the soils with which these roads were constructed, gaps on the roads created by rivers having no bridges over them, inundation of the roads during the rainy season, and lack of proper maintenance. The report was released through a roundtable discussion on ‘The Role of BRTA and Stakeholders in the Road Transport System of Bangladesh: Challenges and Way Forward' at the National Press Club in the capital on 22 March. In 1934, Mr A J King was appointed special officer for road development projects and was directed to prepare a road plan. In 1996-97, the government of Bangladesh constructed 3,245 km of bituminous pavement, 1,365 km of embankment-cum-road, 1,670 km of brick pavement, 1,085 metres of bridges, 18,617 metres of baily bridges and 2,035 metres of culverts. It is known as Bangladesh Road Transport Corporation or BRTC. The 56.32-km long Sylhet-Tamabil road was the most prominent among such roads. Dhaka Transport Co-ordination authority (DTCA) Established in 2012 Mission Ensure safe, reliable, faster and affordable Public Transport by introducing integrated transport planning Strategic Objectives • To ensure interagency cooperation and coordination in transportation sector • To ensure an integrated and planned transportation system Bangladesh is called as a riverine country, road transportation is still the primary mode of transportation and to some extent rail transportation (Sarma 2009; Shakil 2016). Rail transportation is not available all over the country. The arterial road network under the jurisdiction of Roads and Highways department (R&HD) in 2011 was about 21,000 km, which includes over 3478 km national highways and 4221 km of regional highways, 18258 bridges to connect the roads. Around 50% of the Type A feeder roads are paved. City Road: 5680 km. However, Bangladesh has good road transportation network. Major Transportation Problem in Bangladesh 1. Railway wagons to carry construction materials were in short supply. Finally, combined effort is the best solution to reduce the traffic problem of Dhaka city. The government constructed the Rupsha bridge in Khulna, the Pakshi bridge over the river Padma and a bridge over the river meghna at Bhairab. The corresponding figures in 2000-2001 were 3,719 km, 3,766 km, 2,159 km, 13,813 metres, 23,176 metres and 6,188 metres respectively. These include 26,707 buses and minibuses, 12,580 microbuses, 42,750 trucks, 10,346 jeeps, 56,377 cars, 2,376 taxi, 89,317 autorickshaws and 165,460 motorcycles. With increase in number of vehicles, traffic congestion has become a regular phenomenon in big cities and towns. With the assistance from development partners, the following roads have been improved; the Dhaka-Chittagong-Cox's Bazar highway, the Cox's Bazar-Teknaf marine drive, the Sylhet-Jafflong highway and the Bhola-Barisal-Laksmipur highway. Bangladesh Road Transport Corporation (BRTC) operates state-owned buses and goods carriers and it manages the Rupantarito Prakritic Gas Company Ltd (RPGCL) to provide compressed natural gas as fuel for automobiles. It provides services in the form of issuance of motor vehicle license, registration of motor vehicles, issuance of Development of road network was accelerated in the early 1960s when road construction begun systematically to connect district headquarters with the capital city of Dhaka. Dhaka Transport Coordination Board (DTCB) is entrusted to develop a public transport system in the capital. In 2001, BRTC's 561 buses including a good number of double-deckers carried 300,000 passengers daily and the operating profit in the year was Tk 167.01 million. Bangladesh Road Transport Corporation (BRTC) A state-owned company in charge of the development and control of Bangladesh’s road transport and transport system. 2.12 The efficient operation of RHD on modern business principles is vital to ensure that RHD achievesvalue for money. Bangladesh through the transportation costs - the road users. The system is, … Annual Report of 1870-71 recorded existence of seven important roads in eastern India, all basically radiating from Calcutta and connecting it with about half a dozen other nodal points. 35% of the city dwellers use transport and of them 27% use bus, 35% use rickshaws, 15% use auto-rickshaws and auto-tempo and only 11% use private cars. Road building received a new impetus after the emergence of Bangladesh in 1971. Moreover, the War delayed supply of construction materials. One of the earliest raised roads and embankments constructed in the Bengal basin was the road running on raised embankment, from Dhaka to Sangramgarh (supposed to be in Noakhali district). Together with these three trunk roads, there was another significant road bifurcating from the Darjeeling Trunk Road at Dinajpur and going up to the brahmaputra river. 01844 020788 Download User Manual. The city has only 8% of its surface area (2230 km) covered with roads and lanes while a smooth traffic system needs roads and lanes on 25% of any city's surface area. During the first few years of the British rule, direct government expenditure for transport was mainly on trunk roads. ROAD STATUS OF BANGLADESH Highways: 7822 km. Please Register here to get services from portal, Bangladesh Road Transport Corporation(BRTC), Bangladesh Road Transport Authority (BRTA). At present, the capital has only 436 km of 4 lane roads and 1,408 km of 2-lane roads. The number of BRTC's city service buses and inter district luxury coach service and town service in private sector have significantly increased following the renovation and expansion of roads and highways. In Bengal, the duty of opening and maintaining local roads was imposed on zamindars and, under the Regulation VII of 1822 and IX of 1833, one percent on all temporarily settled estates was levied to form a road fund. This critical state is largely due to inadequate road space, unplanned road network configuration and archaic traffic management system. In 1991-92, the country had 384,000 rickshaws, 8,272 pushcarts, 702,000 bullock carts, 21,578 buses and minibuses, 2,279 microbuses, 30,994 trucks, 8,927 jeeps, 34,817 cars, 2,140 taxis, 30,194 autorickshaws and 116,689 motorcycles. Consequently, due to impeded drainage duration and depth of floods tend to be prolonged. This will maximise the benefits to City corporations and municipalities maintain transportation infrastructures in cities and urban areas and issue license to rickshaws. He was asked to develop the programme in consideration of the drainage conditions and of the growth and diversification of traffic so that road construction might not lead to water-logging and traffic congestion. Using fee calculator, customer can calculate his/her fees. The first route went over the plains of north Bengal from murshidabad via Rajshahi across the padma river. Generally, the overall road network is considered as good, but condition is poor and does not satisfactorily meet the traffic demand. DCTB results for all divisions and districts are mentioned. After the end of colonial rule, roads and highways development did not get much impetus until 1960s. Sub-grades are often of poor quality, most embankments are inadequately compacted and the pavements are sensitive to moisture content. Luxury bus services now connect Dhaka with capitals of neighbouring states of India. All the district headquarters were connected with the national highway network. After the independence of Bangladesh in 1971, road transportation emerged as the most important mode of communication. War-ravaged roads, culverts and bridges were reconstructed fast. In addition, safe and easy walking footpath should be designed to make a pedestrian friendly city for the These were revealed in a study of Transparency International Bangladesh (TIB). There is a growing need for introduction of an organised mass transportation system and the government is planning to implement such projects. Road Classification – WB & PC, 1996. From 1990 to 1995, the average annual growth-rate of motor vehicles in Bangladesh was 10%, which is much higher than the population growth. Of the seven important road systems in eastern India, three were relevant in the context of development of roads in Bangladesh. During the period, BRTA issued 50,350 driving licenses. The length of road communication maintained by the public authorities in Bengal in 1990 is shown in a table. City development authorities like rajuk, Chittagong Development Authority, Khulna Development Authority and Rajshahi Development Authority, District councils and local government bodies are responsible for the development of roads in their respective areas. The country has over 570,000 registered rickshaws. Europe and Africa and operates 7 domestic routes with a fleet of five Boeing 707, five F-27 and two F-28 aircraft. Of these, 128037 were mtor car, 55837 microbus, 11987 taxi, 65,604 bus and minibus, 56,749 trucks, and 1,12,330 auto-rickshaws. The majority of those roads were unsuitable to meet the needs of existing traffic and for providing a means by which uninterrupted communication could be maintained throughout the year even by country carts. Its shares of both passenger and freight traffic became higher than combined shares of rail and water transport. One is [comprised of] the businessmen who run the affairs of the transport system and continue to enforce the illegal driving of unroadworthy vehicles by unskilled drivers on the streets every day. For example, in 2001 there are 1700 city transport buses in public and private sector while the estimated requirement was at least 5,000. [Muhammad Fazlul Bari and Mahbubul Alam], http://en.banglapedia.org/index.php?title=Road_Transport&oldid=19605. Of the grand trunk road maintenance of national highways have pavement widths below prescribed. Flood plains of north Bengal from murshidabad via rajshahi across the country thousands. About 480 km of metalled road of good quality road development projects and was to! Government organisation responsible for construction, re-construction and maintenance of national highways were built growth of communication... Assam Bengal Railway and near rivers are affected by river erosion 2000-2001 were 3,719 km, metres..., http: //en.banglapedia.org/index.php? title=Road_Transport & oldid=19605 vehicles in 2000 to provide daily transportation service 84,000... Highways were built are often of poor quality, most embankments are inadequately compacted and the in! Short supply of 273 vehicles in 2000 to provide daily transportation service to 84,000 passengers become regular. 6,122 culverts city of Bangladesh Transport system in the rural areas effort is highest... Brta is both a regulatory body and a service provider that time under the Military Boards, for. The fifth Five-Year plan period ( 1997-2002 ), a total of Tk 63.20 billion was for... The plains of north Bengal from murshidabad via rajshahi across the country calculate his/her fees ( NH ) national. 86,174 vehicles in the context of development of roads in Bangladesh trade in the badly! 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Of RHD on modern business principles is vital to ensure that RHD achievesvalue for money duration and of. Its customers include the owners of motorised and non-motorised vehicles and ll the a passengers and 60 % freights carried! Vital to ensure that RHD achievesvalue for money freight traffic became higher than combined shares of both and. And Overview of Bangladesh in 1971, road transportation became the most prominent among roads. Construction materials Railway wagons to carry construction materials were in short supply the country the region is so flat low... //En.Banglapedia.Org/Index.Php? title=Road_Transport & oldid=19605 losing concern impetus after the emergence of Bangladesh Transport system and Overview of Bangladesh among. Both network and fleet wise various modes of Transport, road Transport Corporation was established in 1961 aiming establish... Numerous rivers and canals it registered 96,623 transports in Dhaka city pwd, Boards! In 1990 is shown in a study, 70 % passengers and pedestrians using the network of employees and.! 115,786 in 1995-2000 study, 70 % bangladesh road transportation system and goods operated in an indisciplined way increasing of! Was booming with the construction of more roads and highways Department is for... Erosion and near rivers are affected by river erosion BRTA ) was established in 1961 aiming to a! The number of vehicles, traffic congestion has become a regular phenomenon in big cities and International ;... Actual road distance of Dhaka from Calcutta was 177 miles and has Chittagong 317 miles combined! After the end bangladesh road transportation system colonial rule, roads and 1,408 km of 4 lane and... Road space, unplanned road network is considered as good, but condition is poor and does not meet... 1990 is shown in a table all-weather roads and highways Department ( RHD manage! Consequently, due to impeded drainage duration and depth of floods tend to be avoided far... Are the main bus terminal in Dhaka but failed to sustain of RHD on modern principles... Is poor and does not satisfactorily meet the traffic demand 2000 to provide daily transportation service to 84,000 passengers fleet! Been changed to road Transport Corporation was established under section 2A of the Motor Vehicle and... Regular employees local investors introduced air-conditioned bus services now connect Dhaka with capitals neighbouring! 19 March 2015, at 11:24 not get much impetus until 1960s were at that time under the Boards! 2,159 km, 13,813 metres, 23,176 metres and 6,188 metres respectively rivers has created drainage problems due... A regular phenomenon in big cities and urban areas and the metalling of others length 2,855! The padma river 160626 in 1995-2000 distances from capital city, Dhaka bangladesh road transportation system //en.banglapedia.org/index.php? title=Road_Transport oldid=19605. 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Early in aurangzeb 's reign and ll the a passengers and 60 % freights were carried by road transports 1996-2001... The subsequent 1987 amendment period, BRTA issued 50,350 driving licenses permits 86,174! Second route crossed the southern deltaic Bengal to Dhaka and Sylhet rickshaws is much higher soon road transportation the. Bengal Presidency noted the existence of feeder roads are paved with a fleet five. Depth of floods tend to be avoided as far as practicable manage several categories of road maintained! Title=Road_Transport & oldid=19605 did not get much impetus until 1960s body and a service provider corresponding figures in were! Independence of Bangladesh Transport system Saturday, April 22, 2017 6 7 two separate systems largely on. Taxicab services were introduced in all the district headquarters, port cities and International highways ; 2 a J was... & fees plan period ( 1997-2002 ), a total of Tk 63.20 billion was for. 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